Business Research Methods | Introduction 2

Scientific Research

A systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions and variables and their presumed relations among natural phenomena or phenomena is called scientific research.

Basically, scientific research is done to identify immediate organizational problems and solve them with the best solutions. It systematically analyses all the dimensions of the problem, finds out the original cause of the situations and problems, collects and interprets the data, and comes up with solutions to the problems.

According to F. N. Kerlinger, “scientific research is a systematic, empirical and critical investigation of propositions about the presumed relationship among the variables.”

According to B. Ostle and R. W. Mensing, “scientific research is an investigation followed by experimentation, observation and logical arguments from accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying proportions.”


Features of Scientific Research

Hence, scientific research is not undertaken based on intuition, experience, and estimation but it always remains purposive and comprehensive.

Features of scientific research are:

  • Rigorous: Scientific research uses the best theory and a good research methodology and design. It includes the carefulness of the researcher and the high degree of sample validity as well as the best conclusion of the result.
  • Purposive: Research should have a definite aim and goals. Without any vision, the research will become useless and won’t come up with real solutions. Thus, if a researcher could set clear and definite objectives then he/she can minimize or avoid errors and come to real solutions.
  • Replicability: Results should be more replicable, making them more acceptable and building confidence for using those results in other situations but having the same problems. Using similar methods and procedures of data collection and analysis as followed by the previous study, should give similar results.
  • Objective: The researcher should eliminate his/her personal values and beliefs while collecting, and interpreting data. The study should be bias-free and the researcher should follow an objective approach. Eg., explaining only what data and study present.
  • Testability: Researchers develop many hypotheses and the relationships between variables are tested using various mathematical and statistical tools and techniques in scientific research.
  • Operational definitions: All the variables used in research should be defined and must give the exact meaning so that no confusion arises while measuring the variables.
  • Generalizability: The research findings from one organization should apply to other organizations and businesses too. If the problems and situations are the same in other organizations, then the results that came from previous research can be applied to that organization.


The Scientific Research Process

The scientific research process refers to the steps that get followed while conducting research activities.

The scientific research process is as follows:

  • Realizing a problem: At the first stage, the researcher should feel that there is some problem that is disturbing their work setting. Without sensing disturbances, a researcher might not be able to track the main problem. So, realizing a problem should be the first step in the scientific research process.
  • Identifying the problem: After sensing the problem, a researcher could try to find out the actual problem. If he/she concludes the wrong issue then the whole research project will get invalid. Researchers should find out the problem and causes by collecting information and analyzing the various scenarios.
  • Reviewing the literature: A literature review studies scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a particular topic, subject, or research question. It helps the researcher find the research gap, clearly define the problem, and identify suitable study methods for particular research problems or issues.
  • Setting research questions, objectives, and hypotheses: In general terms, a hypothesis is an educated guess about particular upcoming results. But in the research process, it’s a study about the relationship between two or more variables in a testable form or statement. So, the researcher prepares valid and reasonable questions, sets research objectives, and formulates a hypothesis at this stage.
  • Choosing the research/study design: Research design refers to the overall strategy utilized to carry out research that defines a concise and logical plan to tackle established research questions through the process of collection, interpretation, analysis, and discussion of data. Thus, at this stage researcher focuses on designing the complete framework of research based on their research problem.
  • Identifying the sample design: After formulating the research design, the researcher clarifies their sample design to collect throughout their research processes. And it helps them to collect reliable and valid data while sampling the population.
  • Collection of data: A researcher should develop the appropriate method of data collection like; questionnaire, interview, observation, etc., as well as the sources of data from where they are going to collect the data. The success of research heavily depends on the quality of data collection, so they should try to collect the best, most reliable, and unbiased data.
  • Processing and analyzing data: A researcher classifies all the collected data based on their research objective, their categories, and requirements. Classified data are then presented and processed in tabulated and chart form. Then they analyze that data using various mathematical equations, formulas, and financial and accounting tools. Also, they use many statistical tools to decode their relationship and variability.
  • Interpretation and generalization: After completing the data analysis, this is the final stage of scientific research where researchers draw their conclusions and find out the solutions to the research problems. Such conclusions can be applied to all other organizations facing similar problems.


Adhikari, D. R., & Pandey, D. L. (2016). Essentials of Business Research Methods (2016 ed.). Asmita Books Publishers & Distributors (P) Ltd.

Research Process: 8 Steps in Research Process. iEduNote. (2021, February 2).

McCombes, S. (2021, March 9). The Literature Review: A Complete Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr.

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Founder and Author at Superb Future. Babu is a student of Business specializing in Sales and Marketing Management. "Everyone is a marketer, whether you are a businessman or a homemaker."