Measurement, Scaling, and Sampling
Courtesy/ vector stock


Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre-specified rules. The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly.

Rules must not get varied over different objects or at any point in time until completing one successive measurement for all sets of pre-defined objects.

Scaling involves creating a continuum or scale upon which measured objects are located. Let’s consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Now, each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 100, with 1 = ‘extremely unfavorable’, and 100 = ‘extremely favorable’.

Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum concerning their attitude toward specific activities or events.


This PDF Note Covers

  • Concept of Measurement
  • Concept of Scaling
  • Nominal Scale
  • Ordinal Scale
  • Interval Scale
  • Ratio Scale
  • Attitude Measurement and Scale Construction
  • Approaches to Construct a Scale
  • Classification of Scaling Techniques (Comparative/Non-Comparative)
  • Likert Type Scales (Procedure to Construct)
  • Thurstone Scales (Guidelines for Construction)
  • Guttman Scales (Guidelines for Construction)
  • Semantic Differential Scale/Stapel Scale/Rank Order Rating Scale
  • Concept of Validity
  • Content Validity
  • Construct Validity (Convergent Validity/Discriminate Validity)
  • Criterion Validity (Concurrent Validity/Predictive Validity)
  • Concept of Reliability
  • Concept of Sampling (Advantages/Problems)
  • Types of Sampling (Probability Sampling/Non-Probability Sampling)
  • Sampling Error (Error Minimization Techniques)
  • Non-sampling Error


Measurement, Scaling, and Sampling | Business Research Methods | Management Notes

Download PDF

Previous articleChanging Consumer Behavior | Case Study | Consumer Behavior
Next articleResearch Design | Business Research Methods | PDF Notes
Founder and Author at Superb Future. Babu is a student of Business specializing in Sales and Marketing Management. "Everyone is a marketer, whether you are a businessman or a homemaker."